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« : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 14:45:34 »

Kigelia Africana - drzewo kiełbasiane

Kigelia Africana ma długą historię w afrykańskiej medycynie. Właściwosci lecznicze wykazuje całe drzewo, począwszy od korzeni, poprzez korę aż do owoców.
W tradycyjnym afrykańskim ziololecznictwie kigelia africana jest stosowana w terapii szeregu chorób skórnych takich jak np. grzybopochodne infekcje lub owrzodzenia.
Na Wyspach Zielonego Przylądka w celu powiekszenia piersi szamanki do ich nacierania stosuja miąższ dojrzałych owoców. Badania naukowe potwierdziły, ze zawarte w miąższu owoców składniki (flawonoidy i fitosterole-saponiny) dzięki swoim właściwościom podobnym do hormonów są odpowiedzialne za utrzymanie jędrnosci skóry.

http://www.epikurion.de/pl/index.html?aducca.html

No właśnie, ekstrakt z tej rośliny ma na prawdę szerokie zastosowanie. Na potrzeby mojego "opracowania" podzieliłam je na trzy głowne grupy:
1. lecznicze- antybakteryjne,  łagodzące stany zapalne, przeciwgrzybicze, potężny antyoksydant,
2. kosmetyczne - ujędrniane skóry (nie tylko biustu, ale tez innych 'zwisów" Wink )
3. kosmatyka - porost włosów, zapobieganie wypadaniu.

Jesli chodzi o działanie antybakteryjne itp. to akurat w tym zakresie jest całkiem sporo naukawych opracowan w necie, potwierdzających wspaniałe możliwości tej rośliny.
np.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of verminoside from Kigelia africana and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis.
Picerno P, Autore G, Marzocco S, Meloni M, Sanogo R, Aquino RP.

School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084, Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

Kigelia africana is a plant used in Africa for anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-skin-aging effects. Various papers have reported on the composition and biological activities of its CH2Cl2 extracts and dermal formulations. Chemical analysis of a polar extract of fruit from K. africana indicated the presence of verminoside (1), an iridoid, as a major constituent, and of a series of polyphenols such as verbascoside (2). In vitro assays showed that 1 had significant anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting both iNOS expression and NO release in the LPS-induced J774.A1 macrophage cell line. Cytotoxicity and cutaneous irritation of the extract and of compounds 1 and 2 were investigated. The crude extract and 1 did not affect cell viability in vitro either in cells grown in monolayers (ML) or in the reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, 3D) model; neither caused release of pro-inflammatory mediators or histomorphological modification of RHE.

PMID: 16309308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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« Odpowiedz #1 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 14:50:20 »

W podanym cytacie autorzy powołują się na dwa składniki ekstraktu z kigelii: verminoside i verbascoside

to własnie one wykazują działanie antybakteryjne, antygrzuybiczne, przeciwzapaleniowe, tudziez antynowotworowe

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Toxicol Lett. 2008 Feb 23 [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
 
Verminoside- and verbascoside-induced genotoxicity on human lymphocytes: Involvement of PARP-1 and p53 proteins.

Santoro A, Bianco G, Picerno P, Aquino RP, Autore G, Marzocco S, Gazzerro P, Lioi MB, Bifulco M.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

Verminoside and verbascoside are natural compounds present in plants used in traditional medicine. They exhibit several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor properties. The potential applications of these compounds as ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics prompted us to investigate on cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of verminoside and verbascoside on human lymphocytes using genetic toxicity assays recommended in preclinical studies by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We analyzed chromosome aberrations (CAs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) as well as the mitotic index (MI) and cell viability after the treatments with verminoside and verbascoside. This report is the first to clearly demonstrate a significant increase of structural CAs and SCEs on normal human lymphocytes associated with a reduction of the MI in both verminoside- and verbascoside-treated cells. Moreover, we observed enhanced protein expression levels of PARP-1 and p53 that are key regulatory proteins involved in cell proliferation and DNA repair. Interestingly, mass spectrometric analysis of the compounds in the culture supernatants also showed that verminoside remained unchanged during the culture period while verbascoside was hydrolyzed to its derivative, caffeic acid and the last one seems to be responsible for the observed biological activity.

PMID: 18395372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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« Odpowiedz #2 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 14:54:13 »

jeślichodzi o same glikozydy werminozyd i werbaskozyd - to sa one dostępne równiez w ekstraktach z innych roślin - np. dziewanna.

Poniższy cytat wprawdzie o ekstrakcie z dziewanny ale o werbaskozycie:

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V jak Verbascum
Verbascum, czyli dziewanna, jest dziś wykorzystywana w farmacji głównie w preparatach przeznaczonych do leczenia chorób gardła i dróg oddechowych. Zanim jednak dokładnie poznano jej właściwości lecznicze, używana była do celów niezwiązanych z medycyną...
Odpowiednio przygotowane i zwinięte liście dziewanny używane były w czasach Pliniusza jako knoty w lampach oliwnych. Dopiero w XVIII wieku Karol Linneusz zwrócił uwagę na łagodzące i wykrztuśne właściwości kwiatów tej rośliny. Stosowano wtedy tzw. mieszankę do sporządzania naparu. Miała w swym składzie cztery kwiaty, ze znaczącą przewagą dziewanny (Tisana pettorale dei 4 fiori). Przeznaczona była do łagodzenia objawów chorób układu oddechowego.

Dziewannę stosowano nie tylko w postaci naparu. Palenie jej liści i wdychanie powstałego dymu łagodziło kaszel. Dziś ta forma podawania substancji leczniczych nie jest stosowana ze względu na nieprecyzyjne dawkowanie oraz efekty uboczne związane z samym sposobem „podania”. W liściach dziewanny wykryto też toksyczny rotenon i dlatego zaniechano ich wykorzystywania.

Wielkokwiatowa i kutnerowata
Przetwory z koron kwiatowych dziewanny, o miodowym zapachu i słodkawym smaku, wchodzą w skład syropów wykrztuśnych i osłaniających. Najczęściej wykorzystywane są Verbascum thapsiforme i Verbascum phlomoides. Polskie odpowiedniki tych nazw to dziewanna wielkokwiatowa i kutnerowata. Te dwa pokrewne gatunki mają podobny wygląd, zbliżone właściwości lecznicze oraz zastosowanie.
Tak charakterystyczna dla polskiego i w ogóle europejskiego krajobrazu dziewanna pochodzi z Azji Południowo-Zachodniej. Występuje również w Europie, Afryce Północnej i Ameryce. Należy do rodziny trędownikowatych (Scrophulariaceae). Surowiec zielarski stanowią same korony kwiatowe.

Zdrowie pochodzące z korony kwiatu
Dzięki zawartości saponin kwiat dziewanny jest polecany jako środek zwiększający wytwarzanie śluzu w drogach oddechowych, a także ułatwiający jego odkrztuszanie. Najszersze zastosowanie ma przy przeziębieniach przebiegających z chrypką, w katarze i uporczywym kaszlu.
Napary z kwiatów stosuje się przy nieżytach jamy ustnej, gardła i oskrzeli. Zawartość śluzów wpływa na właściwości powlekające, co jest wykorzystywane do ochrony błony śluzowej dróg oddechowych przed bodźcami drażniącymi. Dziewanna ułatwia również odkrztuszanie zalegającej wydzieliny. Wykazano także jej działanie przeciwwirusowe, dlatego jest pomocna przy grypie. Zewnętrznie odwary przygotowane z tej rośliny stosowano do leczenia ran, owrzodzeń, oparzeń słonecznych, a także odleżyn i odmrożeń oraz łagodzenia odczynów alergicznych. Obecnie w przemyśle kosmetycznym używa się jej jako składnika zwalczającego łupież, rozjaśniającego włosy i nadającego im połysk.


WARTO WIEDZIEĆ
Dziewanna jest rośliną miododajną – wabi pszczoły wielką obfitością pyłku. Odstrasza natomiast myszy i szczury, które nie znoszą jej zapachu.

Substancje aktywne zawarte w kwiatach dziewanny:
• substancje śluzowe (do 2,5%) (arabinogalaktany, ksyloglukany),
• saponiny trójterpenowe (werbaskosaponina),
• irydoidy (aukubina, katalpozyd),
• flawonoidy 0,5-4% (glikozydy kwercetyny, glukozyd luteoliny, rutynozyd hesperytyny),
• pochodne kwasu kawowego (werbaskozyd),
• karotenoidy (ß-krocetyna,ß-karoten),
• cukry (do 20%),
• olejek lotny (ślady).

dr n. farm. Katarzyna Żurowska


Piśmiennictwo:
1. E. Riva, L’Universo delle Piante Medicinali. Trattato Storico, Botanico e Farmacologico di 400 Piante di Tutto Il Mondo, Tassotti Editore 2001.
2. PDR for Herbal Medicines, Thomson PDR, Montvale 2004.
3. I. Zgorniak-Nowosielska et al., Antiviral activity of Flos Verbasci infusion against influenza and Herpes simplex viruses, Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1991.

http://www.farmacjaija.pl/archiwum.php?aid=307

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fenylopropanoidy (werbaskozyd),

Badania ostatnich lat, dotyczące mechanizmu antyoksydacyjnego działania
polifenoli, pozwoliły znaleźć zależność pomiędzy ich budową, a zdolnością
„zmiatania” RFT. Do najbardziej aktywnych zaliczono antocyjanidyny
i flawonoidy, posiadające liczne grupy OH w tzw. pierścieniu B. Do aktywnych
przeciwutleniaczy należą także fenylopropanoidy [3]. Wymienione składniki
występują wtkankach wszystkich warzyw i owoców: owoce jagodowe są obfitym
źródłem antocyjanidyn [4], w jabłkach występują liczne flawonoidy [5], fenole
z grupy fenylopropanoidów są charakterystyczne dla warzyw liściowych
i korzeniowych (kapusta, brokuł, marchew). Wysoką aktywnością
antyoksydacyjną, spowodowaną obecnością różnorodnych składników
fenolowych, charakteryzują się liście herbat, rośliny przyprawowe i lecznicze
(zioła) [6] a także niektóre produkty pasieczne [7]. Aktywność antyoksydacyjna
roślin może być wyrażona nie tylko jako zawartość przeciwutleniaczy oznaczona
w tkance, czy aktywność antyoksydacyjnych enzymów, ale również jako zdolność
„zmiatania” wolnych rodników (ang. RSA: radical scavenging activity),
zdolność hamowania peroksydacji lipidów, czy zdolność inhibicji destrukcyjnego
działania konkretnej formy RFT (np. rodnika hydroksylowego). W tabeli 4
przedstawiono wartości RSA dla wybranych różnych obiektów roślinnych
(badania własne autorów).
WYBRANE ZWIĄZKI ZAWARTE WROŚLINACH MAJĄCE
WPŁYWNAICH WARTOŚĆ BIOLOGICZNĄ.
ANTYOKSYDACYJNE WŁAŚCIWOŚCI ROŚLIN
Maria Leja, Anna Mareczek
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« Odpowiedz #3 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 14:59:03 »

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Antibacterial and antifungal compounds from Kigelia pinnata.
Binutu OA, Adesogan KE, Okogun JI.

A biologically monitored fractionation of the methanolic extracts of the root and fruits of Kigelia pinnata D.C. led to the isolation of the naphthoquinones kigelinone (1), isopinnatal (2), dehydro-alpha-lapachone (3), and lapachol (4) and the phenylpropanoids p-coumaric acid (5) and ferulic acid (6) as the compounds responsible for the observed antibacterial and antifungal activity of the root and kigelinone (1) and caffeic acid (7) from the fruits of this plant.

PMID: 8792668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Anti-inflammatory activity of verminoside from Kigelia africana and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis.
Picerno P, Autore G, Marzocco S, Meloni M, Sanogo R, Aquino RP.

School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084, Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

Kigelia africana is a plant used in Africa for anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-skin-aging effects. Various papers have reported on the composition and biological activities of its CH2Cl2 extracts and dermal formulations. Chemical analysis of a polar extract of fruit from K. africana indicated the presence of verminoside (1), an iridoid, as a major constituent, and of a series of polyphenols such as verbascoside (2). In vitro assays showed that 1 had significant anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting both iNOS expression and NO release in the LPS-induced J774.A1 macrophage cell line. Cytotoxicity and cutaneous irritation of the extract and of compounds 1 and 2 were investigated. The crude extract and 1 did not affect cell viability in vitro either in cells grown in monolayers (ML) or in the reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, 3D) model; neither caused release of pro-inflammatory mediators or histomorphological modification of RHE.

PMID: 16309308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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« Odpowiedz #4 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:00:26 »

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African Journal of Biotechnology
Academic Journals
ISSN: 1684-5315
Vol. 6, Num. 14, 2007, pp. 1677-1680

ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF KIGELIA AFRICANA

African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 15, 18 July 2007, pp. 1677-1680

Full Length Research Paper

Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae)stem bark

Omonkhelin J. Owolabi1*, Eric K. I. Omogbai1 and Osahon Obasuyi2

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmaceutical microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin. Edo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: josphineomo@yahoo.com. Tel: 08034120318.

Accepted 24 May, 2007

Code Number: jb07292

ABSTRACT

Studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the stem bark of Kigelia africana, (LAM). Benth (Family: Bignoniaceae), a medicinal plant used in South, Central and West Africa for the treatment of various ailments and infection was carried out using agar diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities against Staphylococccus aureus and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition measuring 15.0±0.95 and 20.75±4.6mm respectively. The aqueous extract exhibited no antibacterial or antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the extract was 6.25 ± 1.07 mg/ml for S. aureus and 7.92 ± 1.52 mg/ml for C. albicans. The ethanolic extract was also compared with various standards; Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin. The ethanolic extract (20mg/ml) produced similar zone of inhibition with 25µg disc of amoxicillin.

Key words: Kigelia africana, antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration. 

INTRODUCTION

Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources, many of these isolations were based on the uses of the agents in traditional medicine (Cragg and Newman, 2001). This plant-based traditional medicine system continues to play an essential role in health care, with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care (Farnsworth et al., 1985). Kigelia africana is a plant that is widely distributed in the South, Central and West Africa. Locally known by Europeans as the cucumber or sausage tree because of the huge fruits (average 0.6 m in length and 4 kg in weight), which hangs from long fibrous stalks. The family contains trees, shrubs and climbers. The tree can grow to more than 20 m tall. It is found mostly in riverine areas where distribution is restricted to the wetter areas (Cordell, 2000). Venereal diseases are commonly treated with the extracts usually in palm wine as oral medication. The fruits and barks, grind and boiled in water, are also taken orally or used as enema in treating stomach ailments (Burkill, 1985).

Most commonly, traditional healers have used the sausage tree to treat a wide range of skin ailments from relatively mild complaints such as fungal infections, boils, psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious disease like leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer (Burkill, 1985). Previous studies of the fruits of K. africana showed some antibacterial activity (Grace et al., 2002). However there is no report on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the stem bark of this plant, this is needful as the organism; S. aureus is the most implicated organism in atopic eczema (Burkill, 1985). This report, therefore, presents studies on the antimicrobial properties of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the bark using clinical isolates of bacterial and fungal.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant material

The stem barks were collected based on ethno-pharmacological information.  The barks were collected in Okomu forest reserve, Udo in Benin City, Edo State. The botanical identity of the plant and its bark was by Alhaji Alasa Abubakar, of the Department of Pharmacogonosy, University of Benin, while it was authenticated at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (F.R.I.N., Ibadan) where a specimen (No FHI 107654) was deposited for future reference.

Immediately after collection, the barks were cut into small pieces and dried under sunlight. The dried barks were pulverized into a smooth powder using impact mill, weighed and kept for further analysis.

Drugs and chemicals

Absolute alcohol (Sigma-Aldrich), Mueller Hinton agar medium (Oxiod Limited., Basingstoke, England) Nutrient broth (oxoid cm 31), Sabouraud dextrose broth (oxoid CM 41; Sigma – Aldrich) Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone (silva Hills) and Fluconazole (Drug field).

Extraction of the plant material

The powdered material (500 g) was mixed with absolute alcohol (2.5 l) and left for 72 h.  The mixture was stirred at 6 h intervals using a sterile glass rod, while another 500 g was placed into 4 l of distilled water and heated using a hot plate for 30 min. At the end, both extracts were filtered. The filtrates were concentrated in a vacuum (40oC), giving a yield of 3.78% for the ethanolic extract and 10.74% for aqueous extract. They were then stored in universal bottles and refrigerated at 4oC prior to use.

Micro organism

Clinical Isolates of E. Coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and the yeast C. albicans were all supplied by the Pharmaceutical Microbiology Department of the University of Benin.

Preparation of medium

Mueller–Hinton Agar was supplied by the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Benin. Inocula of test organisms obtained from source were prepared by growing each pure isolate in Nutrient broth for 18 hours at 37oC. The overnight broth culture was matched with macfarland turbidity standard to give an approximate 108 cfu/ml. 0.2mls was then used to seed a molten Mueller Hinton agar medium which has been allowed to cool to 45oC to obtain approximately 106 cfu/ml.  This was poured into sterile Petri dishes and used for analysis (Ibeh et al 2002).

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

The agar diffusion method described by Verpoorte (1988) was used. Inocula of test organisms obtained from source were prepared by growing each pure isolate in Nutrient broth for 18 h at 37oC. The overnight broth culture was matched with macfarland turbidity standard to give an approximate 108 cfu/ml. 0.2 ml was then used to seed a molten Mueller Hinton agar medium which has been allowed to cool to 45oC to obtain approximately 106 cfc/ml. This was poured into sterile petri dishes and used for analysis.

The susceptibility assay was carried out with 20 mg/ml concentration of each of the extracts with bacterial suspensions of 106 organisms/ml. This was delivered into wells (8 mm in diameter) bored unto the surface of the already seeded Mueller Hinton agar plates. Equal volumes of distilled water and ethanol were assayed along to act as negative controls. Commercial discs containing amoxicillin 25 µg, ciprofloxacin 5 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, ceftriaxone 30 µg and 20 mg/ml fluconazole served as positive controls for the antibacterial and anti-fungal activities. S. aureus (NCTC 10788) maintained in the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory was set up along with the test organisms as a check on the effect of the media and inherent sensitivity of isolates on zones of inhibition produced by the anti-bacterial substances.  C. albicans was first grown on sabouraud dextrose broth and assayed using sabouraud dextrose agar. The plates were incubated at 37oC for 24 h while the plates containing the fungi were incubated at 25oC for 48 h. After incubation, zone of inhibition around the wells and the disc were measured and recorded.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

The extracts were incorporated into Mueller Hinton agar at concentrations ranging from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml. A control containing the growth medium and each of the test isolates was also set up. A loopful of the organisms previously diluted to 106 cfu/ml was used to inoculate the plates. These were incubated at appropriate temperatures of 37oC for 24 h and 25oC for 48 h for the bacteria and fungi, respectively.  The MIC of the extract was regarded as the lowest concentration that did not permit growth of test organism.

Acute toxicity test

24 mice (20 – 25 g) of either sex were obtained from the Animal House of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin city. The animals were randomly divided into six (6) groups of four (4) mice each. The animals were fed with mice pellets and had free access to drinking water but starved for 12 h prior to testing. The first five groups were orally administered with 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg of ethanolic extract, respectively. The sixth group was given distilled water (10 ml/kg). General symptoms of toxicity and mortality were observed for 24 h for any sign of delayed toxicity (Lorke, 1983).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The ethanolic extract of K. africana possess antibacterial and antifungal activity against S. aureus and C. albicans but not against the strains of Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa tested (Table 1). The water extract showed no activity against all the organisms. The activity of 20 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract of K. africana against S. aureus was found to be similar to that of 25 µg disc of amoxicillin (Table 2). The MIC was 6.25 ± 1.07 mg/ml for the ethanolic extract against S. aureus and 7.92 ± 1.520 mg/ml against C. albican (Table 3). Distilled water and ethanol, which served as negative controls, produced no zones of inhibition. Table 4 shows the result of the acute toxicity test done on mice. The LD50 was estimated from a log-dose response curve (Figure 1) as 4 g/kg. 

Table 1.  Mean zone diameter of clinical isolates to the ethanolic extract.

Values are mean of four per group.

The extract was well tolerated by the animals as no signs of acute toxic effects like restlessness, dizziness or seizures were observed after the administration at 1 – 2 g/kg. However at 4 g/kg, the animals showed signs of toxicity like writhes and jerks, with 50% death. At 6 g/kg there was 75% death. While at 8 g/kg, there was 100% death.

The fact that the ethanolic extract of K. africana produced zones of inhibition against a Gram positive organism such as S. aureus and a fungus C. albicans indicate the presence of antimicrobial activity which con-firms its use as anti-infection agent. However, it showed no activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa thus indicating its narrow spectrum of activity. The aqueous extract showed no activity, indicating that ethanol is a better extracting solvent. S. aureus and C. albicans have been implicated in the pathology of atopic eczema and psoriasis (Watt and Breyer-Bradwijk, 1962). From the investigation carried out it shows that low doses of 6.25 ±1.07mg/ml and 7.92 ±1.52mg/ml of the ethanolic extract would inhibit the effect of these organisms causing these infections. This thus gives credence to its ethnopharmacological use as a remedy for these skin infections and other infections in which these organisms are implicated.

The ethanolic extract was compared with respect to its antimicrobial activity with some commercially obtained antibiotics. This is shown in Table 3. Zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus produced by the extract at 20mg were similar to that of 25µg disc of amoxicillin. However its zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 78%, 60% and 45% of that produced by gentamicin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin respectively (result not shown). For its antifungal activity the zones of inhibition produced was 58% of that of fluconazole (result not shown).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Our sincere thanks go to Mr. Ching-Poh Fidelis for his technical assistance.

REFERENCES
Burkill HM (1985). The useful plants of west tropical Africa. (Use P.I WT Afr) 1: 254-257.
Cordell GA (2000). Biodiversity and drug discovery: a symbiotic relationship. Phytochemistry 56: 463-480.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ (2001). Medicinals for the millennia. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 953: 3-25.
Duke JA (2002).  CRC. Handbook of medicinal herbs. (CRC Med Herbs ed 2).
Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS (1985). Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull. WHO 63: 965-981.
Ibeh LN, Idu M, Obasuyi O (2002). Studies on the Antimicrobial properties of Lepistemon owariense leaf. J. Med. Lab. Sci. 2(1): 55.
Lorke D (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing: Arch. Toxicol. 54: 275-287.
Pooley E (1993).  The complete guide to trees of Natal, Zululand and Transkei. Natal Flora Publications Trust.
Ver-poorte R, Le Grand Wondergem A, Pousset JL (1988). Anti infections and phytotherapies of the tree savannah of Senegal. (West Africa). J. Ethnopharmacol. 22 (1):  25-31.
Watt JM, Breyer-Bradwijk MG (1962). The medicinal and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Livingstone, London, p. 538.

© 2007 Academic Journals

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« Odpowiedz #5 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:04:31 »

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The synthetic furanonaphthoquinone induces growth arrest, apoptosis and differentiation in a variety of leukaemias and multiple myeloma cells.
Desmond JC, Kawabata H, Mueller-Tidow C, Simamura E, Heber D, Hirai K, Koeffler HP.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. jcdesmon@usc.edu

2-methyl-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (FNQ3), a synthetic analogue of the quinone kigelinone, has demonstrated a real potential for use in the treatment of a variety of solid tumours. Unlike other quinones, such as mitomycin-C and adriamycin, the cytotoxicity of FNQ3 is often 10- to 14-fold more potent towards the tumour cells than their normal counterparts. We report, for the first time, that the drug had activity against a broad spectrum of leukaemias and multiple myeloma cells. It decreased the growth of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and multiple myeloma cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion (50% inhibitory concentration approximately 1.25 microg/ml against most of the leukaemia cell lines). This dose apparently initiated mitochondrial collapse as measured by depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane. FNQ3 potentiated the differentiation of HL-60 myeloid cells in the presence of either 1alpha, 25(OH)(2) dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). FNQ3 inhibited the proliferation of primary AML cells while inducing apoptosis. Eleven of 14 (79%) AML marrow samples had a prominent decrease in their clonogenic growth when cultured in the presence of the drug. In summary, this drug has growth inhibitory, apoptotic and differentiative effects against myeloid leukaemias and multiple myeloma cells. FNQ3 may represent a new therapeutic approach to these malignancies.

PMID: 16281944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

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Phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid derivatives from Kigelia pinnata DC. fruits.
Gouda YG, Abdel-Baky AM, Mohamed KM, Darwish FM, Kasai R, Yamasaki K.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

Further phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Kigelia pinnata DC. has yielded a new phenylpropanoid derivative identified as 6-p-coumaroyl-sucrose (1) together with ten known phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid derivatives (2-11) and a flavonoid glycoside (12). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using various techniques of NMR and MS spectral analysis.

PMID: 16854722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Iridoids from Kigelia pinnata DC. fruits.
Gouda YG, Abdel-baky AM, Darwish FM, Mohamed KM, Kasai R, Yamasaki K.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt.

From the fruits of Kigelia pinnata DC., a new furanone derivative formulated as 3-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2"-hydroxypropyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (1), and four new iridoids named; 7-hydroxy viteoid II (2), 7-hydroxy eucommic acid (3), 7-hydroxy-10-deoxyeucommiol (4) and 10-deoxyeucommiol (5) have been isolated together with seven known iridoids, jiofuran (6), jioglutolide (7), 1-dehydroxy-3,4-dihydroaucubigenin (Cool, des-p-hydroxybenzoyl kisasagenol B (9), ajugol (10), verminoside (11) and 6-trans-caffeoyl ajugol (12). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic methods.

PMID: 12895535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice: effects of some medicinal plants on the oxidative defense system.
Olaleye MT, Rocha BT.

Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Camobi, Cep 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. tolu1967@yahoo.co.uk

Paracetamol (acetaminophen, PCM) is widely used as an over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Intake of a large dose of PCM may result in severe hepatic necrosis. Oxidative stress mediated by oxidative capacities of the PCM metabolite (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI), is considered as the main cause of hepatotoxicity of PCM. This work therefore seeks to induce liver damage in mice using single dose (25 0mg/kg) of acetaminophen and to evaluate the possible protective effects of administration (100mg/kg) of some medicinal plants (Kigelia africana, Calotropis procera, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Alchornea cordifolia) on PCM-induced liver damage in mice. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were determined in the plasma of mice. Equally, comparative effects of these plants on lipid peroxidation product thiobarbituric reacting substances (TBARS) and some antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), and delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activities, were also evaluated in the mouse liver homogenate. Paracetamol caused liver damage as evident by statistically significant (P<0.05) increased in plasma activities of AST and ALT. There were general statistically significant losses in the activities of SOD, GPx, CAT, and delta-ALA-D and an increase in TBARS in the liver of paracetamol-treated group compared with the control group. However, all the tested plants except Calotropis procera were able to counteract these effects. The present results suggest that these plants can act as hepatoprotectives against paracetamol toxicity and that the mechanism by which they do this is by acting as antioxidants.

PMID: 18054472 [PubMed - in process

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« Odpowiedz #6 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:06:20 »

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African Sausage Tree (Kigelia pinnata/africana) Family: Bignoniaceae

Kigelia has a long history of use by rural African communities, particularly for its medicinal properties. Most commonly, traditional healers have used the sausage tree to treat a wide range of skin ailments, from fungal infections, boils, psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious diseases, such as leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer. It also has internal applications, including the treatment of dysentery, ringworm, tapeworm, post-partum haemorrhaging, malaria, diabetes, pneumonia and toothache. The Tonga women of the Zambezi valley regularly apply cosmetic preparations of kigelia fruit to their faces to ensure a blemish-free complexion.

The fruit is a common ingredient in traditional beer, and is said to hasten the fermentation process. Kigelia leaves are an important livestock fodder, and the fruits are much prized by monkeys and elephants. Perhaps not surprisingly, given its suggestive shape, the fruit has also found traditional use as an aphrodisiac.

Constituents: Like other members of the Bignoniaceae family, kigelia is noted for the occurrence of iridoids and napthaquinones:
Iridoids (eg catapol) and iridoid derivatives (norviburtinal)
Napthaquinones (including kigelinone)
Monoterpenoid-napthaquinones (pinnatal)
Isocourmarins (including kigelin)
Lignans (kigeliol)
Sterols (including beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol)
Flavonoids (including quercetin, luteolin)

Chemistry & Pharmacology: Initial laboratory studies (1,2) illustrated the efficacy of an aqueous extract of stem bark and two major iridoids against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and the yeast Candida albicans. Kigelinone and isopinnatal were the most active compounds.These tests gave validity to the traditional use of the plant as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent. Later work also supports the use of kigelia fruit extracts for treating skin cancer, with norviburtinal displaying the greatest activity,The sterols are known to help a range of skin conditions, notably eczema, and the flavonoids have clear hygroscopic and fungicidal properties.

Selected references:
Akunyili DN et al. (1991) Antimicrobial Activities of the Stembark of Kigelia Pinnata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 35: 173-177.
Akunyili, D. and Houghton, P. (1993) Monoterpenoids and naphthaquinones from Kigelia pinnata. Phytochemistry, 32 (4): 1015-1018.
Bandyopadhyay, N. et al (1999) Chemotaxonomical study of some selected species of Bignoniaceae with reference to phenolic compounds. Journal of Hill Research, 12 (1): 5-10.
Binutu, O. et al (1996) Antibacterial and antifungal compounds from Kigelia pinnata. Planta Medica, 62: 352-353.
Grace, O. et al (2002) Antibacterial activity and isolation of active compounds from fruit of the traditional African medicinal tree Kigelia africana. South African Journal of Botany, 68 (2): 220-222.
Houghton, P. et al (1994) Activity of extracts of Kigelia pinnata against melanoma and renal carcinoma cell lines. Planta Medica, 60 (5): 430-433.
Khan, M. and Mlungwana, S., (1999) Short Report: gamma-Sitosterol, a cytotoxic sterol from Markhamia zanzibarica and Kigelia africana. Fitoterapia, 70: 96-97.
Maisiri, M. and Gundidza, M., (1999) The effects of crude extracts of Kigelia africana and Aloe excelsa on deep wound healing. University of Zimbabwe, Harare. www.uz.ac.zw/medicine/pharmacy/pubs. 23/05/02.
Moideen, S. et al (1999) Activity of extracts and napthoquinones from Kigelia pinnata against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucie rhodesiense. Planta Medica, 65: 536-540.
Weenen, H. et al (1990) Anti-malarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants. Planta Medica, 56: 368-370.
Kolodziej, H. (1997) Protective role of Kigelia africana fruits against benzo(a)pyrene-induced fore-stomach tumourigenesis in mice and against albumen-induced inflammation in rats. Pharm Pharmacol.Lett.2/3: 67 – 70

http://www.healthsbells.co.za/KigeliaTech.htm


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« Odpowiedz #7 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:06:59 »

I najciekawsze wg. mnie opracowanie:

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PHARMACEUTICAL OR COSMETIC PREPARATION BASED ON KIGELIA AFRICANA

Field of the Invention

5 This invention relates to a pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic preparation.

Background to the Invention

The inventor is aware of a need for a treatment for various medical and 0 cosmetic conditions including Psoriasis, Eczema, Solar Keratosis, Cancerous Sores, and other conditions.

The inventor is aware of a need for a treatment for cuts, bruises, skin exposed to the sun, insect bites and stings. Such a treatment could be a general pain 5 reliever, an anti-septic, an anti-inflammatory, and/or an anti-pruritic.

The treatment should preferably be natural in origin and thus the inventor has sought to provide a preparation made from plant extracts.

0 Summary of the Invention

According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic preparation which contains an extract of one or more parts of the Kigelia Af ricana, or Sausage Tree. 5 The parts of the tree which may conveniently be used include fruit, stembark, and pendulum i.e. where the fruit hangs from, or a product thereof.

Typically, the preparation will contain 50% extract and the remainder will be 0 carrier, excipients, colourants, and the like.

Thus, in some examples, a cream, ointment, gel, or the like contains 50% extract of one or more of fruit, bark, and pendulum.

5 In use, as a pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic preparation, the preparation may i be applied to the skin.

The preparation for skin application may be in the form of a cream, an emulsion, an ointment, an aerosol, a powder, a dust, a tincture, a suspension, a gel, or the like.

As a pharmaceutical preparation, the preparation may be taken internally as a protein, a mineral, a vitamin, or the like. It may conveniently be provided in the form of a capsule, a tablet, a syrup, a health tonic, or the like.

The invention extends to a method of preparing a topical application medicament and/or cosmetic preparation for the treatment of the skin of a mammal such as a human, said method including blending a Kigelia Africana fruit extract with a Kigelia Africana stembark and/or pendulum extract in a ratio of from 1 :99 to 99:1 by volume.

Typically, the fruit extract and stembark and/or pendulum extract are blended in a volumetric ratio of from 1 :9 to 9:1 , usually from 1 :2 to 10:1.

In one embodiment, for the treatment of solar keratosis, precancerous sores, and other ailments of the skin, the fruit extract and stemabrk and/or pendulum extract is blended in a volumetric ratio of 9:1.

The invention extends yet further to a method of preparing a topical application medicament and/or cosmetic preparation for the treatment of the skin of a mammal such as a human, said method including blending a Kigelia Africana fruit extract with skin cream or ointment components.

The invention extends to a method of treatment of the human or animal body, said method including the application of a pharmaceutically or cosmetically active quantity of a preparation as described above to a skin ailment site requiring treatment.

The method of treatment may be suited for the treatment of Psoriasis, Eczema, Neurodermitis, Solar Keratosis, Cancerous Sores, and other such skin conditions.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a topical preparation for cuts, bruises, insect bites, stings, and sun exposure of the skin, which preparation contains less than 40% m/m of an extract of one or more parts of the Kigelia Africana, or Sausage Tree.

The topical preparation may be a general pain reliever, an anti-septic, an anti inflammatory, and/or an anti-pruritic.

The topical preparation may be useful in treating fever blisters.

Other ingredients may include tea tree oil, propylene glycol, and triethanolamine.

The parts of the tree which may conveniently be used include fruit, stembark, and pendulum i.e. where the fruit hangs from, or a product thereof.

Typically, the preparation will contain less than 40% extract and the remainder will be carrier, excipients, colourants, and the like.

Thus, in some examples, a cream, ointment, gel, or the like contains 30% extract of one or more of fruit, bark, and pendulum.

In use the preparation may be applied to the skin to relieve the symptoms and/or assist in healing of the skin when the skin has been damaged as a result of cuts, bruises, insect bites, stings and/or sun exposure or over exposure. Sun exposure or over exposure can also be referred to as sun burn and products for the treatment of sun burn are sometimes referred to as after sun products.

The invention extends to a method of treatment using the preparation for the treatment of cuts, bruises, insect bites, stings, and exposure to sun.

The fruit extract may be prepared in the following way: - select ripe fruit which are not harbouring insect borers and which are still fresh - skin the fruit and de-seeding it so that the skin and seeds are discarded and are not included in the extract - cut the skinned, de-seeded fruit into approximatley 3cm-thick slices - pulp the slices in a mortar or by mechanical means until a stringy mass of pulp is achieved - pass the pulp through a squeezing-type mincer or equivalent device thus obtaining a dark-coloured soft pulpy mass of thick consistency - mix the pulp with ethyl alcohol of about 96% in a ratio of about 3 parts by volume of pulp to 1 part of alcohol - stir the mixture thoroughly to achieve maximum extraction - filter the stirred mixture - store the filtrate and discard the filtered solids, typically at 4°C.

The stembark and/or pendulum extract may be prepared in the following manner: dice the whole pendulum i.e. the string from which the fruit is hanging on, and/or stripped bark into small pieces of about 2cm thick - cover the diced material with ethyl alcohol for about fourteen days, and typically store at 4°C pulp the mass through a mincer or equivalent device using alcohol as a further extractant, if required for better extraction squeeze the liquid out of the pulp and remove all the solid particles by filtration store the filtrate at about 40C.

Examples of Uses of the Preparation of the Invention

Example 1

Solar keratosis and pre-cancerous sores which result from excessive exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays may be treated by applying a preparation as described above The preparation may be applied to the affected areas, usually the hands, arms, face, ears, upper chest and neck which removes those spots gradually by changing into darker encrustations (lesions) which eventually fall off or can be rubbed off the skin.

In one case, Dr Kim Hilne noted that after 3 weeks of application of the cream 3 times daily canker sores cleared up.

Depending how serious the condition is application may be required for 3 - 12 weeks / 3 x daily.

Example 2

Certain inflammatory diseases of the skin which are accompanied by itching and the exudation of serous matter may be treated by the application of a preparation as described above

These cases of eczema and psoriasis have been cured within a short period.

Example 3

Cuts, bruises, insect bites, stings, and sun burn can be treated with a lotion having a composition which is similar to that which follows: INGREDIENTS :

Polysorbate 20 6.00 % Propylene Glycol 2.00 %

Tea Tree Oil EO 2.00 %

Triethanolamine 0.64 %

Carbomer 940 0.80 %

Methyl paraben 0.24 %

Propyl paraben 0.02 %

Water 58.30 %

Subtotal 70.00 %

Kigelia Extract 30.00 %

Total 100.00 %

Example 4

A cream and a scalp application can be prepared as per the attached data sheets.

For skin ailments like: eczema, psoriasis the same gel, cream ointment etc. is used as for cancerous sores - for scalp problems Kigela Scalp Application

It is believed that extracts of Kigalia Africana include some or all of the compounds listed below, however, it is not the individual compounds which form the subject matter of this invention but rather the use of extracts of plant material. Botanical Name: Kigelia africana (syn. Kigelia pinnata)

INCI Name (CTFA/Linne): Family = Bignoniaceae Genus = Kigelia Species = africana (syn. pinnata)

Parts used: Fruit, bark of the stem and the pendulum

Composition: Iridoids from Kigelia africana Oglucose : Catalpol Iridoids : Specioside Verminoside Minecoside Norviburtinal Naphthaquinoids from Kigelia africana Lapachol Kigelinone 2-acetylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone 2-(l-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-quinone Pinnatal Isopinnatal Kigelinol Isokigelinol Flavonoids & other shikimate-derived compounds from Kigelia africana Quercetin Luteolin 6-OH luteolin Luteolin-7-glucoside 6-OH luteolin-7-glucoside 6-Methoxymellein Kigelin 6-Demethylkigelin Kigeliol Balanophonin β-Sitosterol Stigmasterol γ-Sitosterol

isoWgeliπo

lridoids from Kigelia africana Naphthaquinoids from Kigelia africana Flavonoids and other shikimate-derived compounds from Kigelia africana

Claims

1. A pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic preparation which contains an extract of one or more parts of Kigelia Africana tree, also known as the Sausage tree.

2. A preparation as claimed in claim 1 , containing one or more parts of the tree selected from fruit, stembark, and pendulum, or a product thereof.

3. A preparation as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, containing 50 mass% extract.

4. A preparation as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in the form of a cream, an emulsion, an ointment, an aerosol, a powder, a dust, a tincture, a suspension, or a gel for skin application.

5. A preparation as claimed in any one of the preceding claims which is a cream, ointment, or gel containing 50% extract of one or more of the fruit, bark, and pendulum.

6. A preparation as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, which is in the form of a capsule, a tablet, a syrup, or a tonic.

7. A method of preparing a topical application medicament and/or cosmetic preparation for the treatment of the skin of a mammal, said method including blending a Kigelia Africana tree fruit extract with a Kigelia Africana tree stembark and/or pendulum extract in a ratio of from 1 :99 to 99:1 by volume.

8. A method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the fruit extract, and stembark and/or pendulum extract are blended in a volumetric ratio of from 1 :9 to 9:1.

9. A method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the fruit extract, and stembark and/or pendulum extract are blended in a volumetric ratio of from 1 :2 to 10:1. 10. A method as claimed in claim 7, wherein for the treatment of solar keratosis, Neurodermitis, precancerous sores, and other ailments of the skin, the fruit extract and stembark and/or pendulum extract is blended in a volumetric ratio of 9:1.

1 1. A method of preparing a topical application medicament and/or cosmetic preparation for the treatment of the skin of a mammal, said method including blending the Kigelia Africana tree fruit extract with skin cream or ointment components.

12. A topical preparation for cuts, bruises, insect bites, stings, and sun exposure of the skin, which preparation contains less than 40% m/m of an extract of one or more parts of the Kigelia Africana, or Sausage Tree.

13. A topical preparation as claimed in claim 12, which preparation is a general pain reliever, an anti-septic, an anti-inflammatory, and/or an anti pruritic.

14. A topical preparation as claimed in claim 12, which preparation is useful in treating fever blisters.

15. A topical preparation as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 14, including one or more of tea tree oil, propylene glycol, and triethanolamine.

16. A topical preparation as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein the parts of the tree which are used include fruit, stembark, and pendulum, or a product thereof.

17, A topical preparation as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the preparation contains less than 40 mass% extract.

18. A process for the preparation of an extract from the fruit of the Kigalia Africana tree, the process including: - selecting ripe fruit which are not harbouring insect borers and which are still fresh; - skinning the fruit and de-seeding it so that the skin and seeds are discarded and are not included in the extract; - cutting the skinned, de-seeded fruit into approximatley 3cm-thick slices; - pulping the slices in a mortar or by mechanical means until a stringy mass of pulp is achieved; - passing the pulp through a squeezing-type mincer or equivalent device thus obtaining a dark-coloured soft pulpy mass of thick consistency; - mixing the pulp with ethyl alcohol of about 96% in a ratio of about 3 parts by volume of pulp to 1 part of alcohol; - stirring the mixture thoroughly to achieve maximum extraction; - filtering the stirred mixture; and - storing the filtrate and discarding the filtered solids.

19. A process as claimed in claim 18, wherein the filtrate is stored at about 4°C.

20. A process for the preparation of an extract of the stembark and/or pendulum of the Kigalia Africana tree, the process including: dicing the whole pendulum and/or stripped bark into small pieces of about 2cm thick; covering the diced material with ethyl alcohol for about fourteen days; pulping the mass through a mincer or equivalent device using alcohol as a further extractant, if required for better extraction; squeezing the liquid out of the pulp and remove all the solid particles by filtration.

21. A process as claimed in claim 20, wherein the diced material is covered with alcohol for 14 days at about 4°C.

22. A process as claimed in claim 20 or claim 21 , wherein the filtrate is stored at about 4°C

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KIGELIA PINNATA DC
Synonym : Kigelia africana Benth.
Common Name : Sausage tree
Local Name : Blima (Baoule), Bo (Shien), Non (Gouro)
Family: Bignoniaceae
BOTANICAL SOURCE
Kigelia Pinnata is a small spreading tree (10 to 15 m) with pendulous
racemes of dull liver-coloured flowers and a long-stalked large gourd-like
fruit (25 to 30 cm of long and 8 cm of diameter). The French name is
″saucissonnier″ because of their sausage-shaped fruits.
COSMETIC INTEREST
Because Kigelia africana fruits contain STEROIDAL SAPONINS, and two
FLAVONOIDS, LUTEOLINE and QUERCITINE, it is very interesting to use a
fruit extract to DEVELOP the BUST, and REINFORCE the strengh
and stability of the BREAST COLLAGEN FIBERS.
EUK
offers
EXTRANATURA KIGELIA
with the specific solvent-base, water - BUTYLENE GLYCOL
http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:GExsPPWbPJkJ:www.eukextract.com/IMG/pdf/EXTRANATURA_PDF_WEB.pdf+kigelia+africana&hl=pl&ct=clnk&cd=142&gl=pl
« Ostatnia zmiana: Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:09:29 wysłane przez marianna » Zapisane

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« Odpowiedz #8 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:08:21 »

I jako składnik na porost włosów:

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KAPILARINE
INCI   Water, Propylene glycol, Kigelia Africana Fruit Extract, Gingko biloba Leaf Extract, Salvia Sclarea (Clary) Extract, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Bark Extract
Opis   Zapobieganie wypadaniu włosów
DEFINICJA SUROWCA
Kompleks wodno-glikolowych ekstraktów z: kigelii, cynamonu, szałwi i miłorzębu
WŁAŚCIWOŚCI
stymulacja wzrostu włosów
wzmocnienie struktury włosa
Funkcja   substancje aktywne
Producent   Greentech
Dystrybutor   COSMETICS PARTNER

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Laboratory and Chemical Studies

A breakthrough in my search came when I found some recent published works on laboratory studies which had been conducted at the University of Nigeria in conjunction with Chelsea Pharmacy Department, London.[1],[2] The researchers conducted in-vitro tests for the efficacy of an aqueous extract of stem bark and two major iridoids against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Their conclusion was that 'the extract tested had pronounced inhibitory effect against all microorganisms'. These tests gave validity to the traditional use as a natural antibacterial. Chemical analyses of the roots, wood and leaves of the tree have shown the presence of napthoquinones, dihydroisocoumarins, flavonoids and aldehydic iridoid derivatives. Later work on meroterpinoids and napthoquinones from Kigelia pinnata was an attempt to determine the identity of the antineoplastic constituents. Since psoriasis is a condition where the rate of skin turnover is around seven times faster than normal, a product which might retard overactive cell growth suggested a possible reason for the efficacy Derek had observed.
Relationship with Eczema – Case 2

At around the same time, it was becoming generally accepted that an opportunistic mechanism involving Staphylococcus aureus was a factor in causing outbreaks of atopic eczema. A relative with eczema since birth and in her late forties was recruited. She would experience severe flare-ups on her face at least once a month and the only effective method of control was regular application of one of the strongest steroid creams. Not only had she lived with her condition for so long, but, being in a managerial position in the health food department of a major Central London concern, was well informed about health matters. It took her about three months of regular use with the Kigelia cream before she could discontinue the steroid cream and has now been free of eczema for about three years.
Other Successes

A German shepherd dog had been plagued by a localized skin complaint for two years. The vet had prescribed a variety of steroid and antibiotic combinations, which might have been effective had poor compliance not been a problem. The dog seemed to know when the medication was due and made it extremely difficult for the owner to apply, or, once applied would proceed to lick the application off the area. In contrast, the Kigelia cream was tolerated and caused no discomfort, such that the area healed after a few weeks.

Further tests with sufferers of both chronic and acute skin complaints were all encouraging. From our own investigations and those in Africa, we were able to conclude that topical preparations made with the tree extract were well tolerated. In general, users of our creams find them soothing, and one of the first hurdles to overcome with both psoriasis and eczema is to limit the skin damage as a result of scratching. The soothing properties of the cream have been confirmed by medical colleagues in Zimbabwe, who report its effectiveness in treating mosquito bites. A lady recently reported to me that during a visit to the Victoria Falls area she was bitten by tsetse fly. A game warden who accompanied her immediately sliced a piece of sausage tree fruit and applied it to the area for about twenty minutes, after which the bites were hardly noticeable. As a regular traveller to the region, she has also found the cream helpful for removal of her 'age' spots.

We have also found that the cream helps to slow down bleeding from cuts to the skin and accelerate healing. This has, unfortunately been learnt through painful experience or more appropriately inexperience with a knife. Subsequently, several instances of accidents have been made known to us – individuals who have cut themselves and a child who grazed his knee quite badly after a fall. Normally bleeding would have occurred for some time, but in each case the sausage tree cream apparently resulted in rapid cessation of bleeding and promoted healing.
Conclusion

My day-to-day work involves seeing a whole spectrum of patients and making product recommendations. It has been a privilege and a rare opportunity for me to discover a new treatment that has made such a significant improvement to the lives of so many people.
References

1. Akunyili DN et al. Antimicrobial Activities of the Stembark of Kigelia Pinnata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 35: 173-177. 1991.
2. Akunyuli DN and Houghton PJ. Meroterpinoids and Napthoquinones from Kigelia Pinnata. Phytochemistry. 32(4): 1015-1018. 1993.
żródło

« Ostatnia zmiana: Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:10:25 wysłane przez marianna » Zapisane

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« Odpowiedz #9 : Kwiecień 23, 2008, 15:11:12 »

No...tak na szybko...jeszcze doszlifuję Smiley
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« Odpowiedz #10 : Maj 14, 2008, 12:44:35 »

Wrażenia Smiley

Smaruję się ekstraktem z kigelii systematycznie od około 3-4 tygodni. Smaruję cyc - bo kigelia ma działać w tym miejscu cuda ujędrniające przecież Wink
 oraz smaruję twarz - w formulacji podfiltrowej jako antyoksydant.

No i ...szału nie ma Tongue

Jedyne działanie jakie mogę potwierdzić (bo wglądu w działanie antyoksydacyjne to na razie nie mam Wink ) - to świetnie eliminuje wszelkie chrostki, zaczerwienienia, wypryski itp.
Pozbyłam się tego dziadostwa z dekoltu i twarzy - no na prawdę bardzo fajny efekt.

Jeśli miałabym się odnieść do właściwości ujędrniających - no to nie wiem co napisac - bo na gębie skóra zareagowała bardzo ładnie, faktycznie jak po delikatnym liftingu, ale na biuście zero reakcji (oprócz oczywiście pozbycia się syfków).

No i teraz nie wiem - gdzie tkwi przyczyna?
-czy stężenie za małe,
- czyza krótko stosowane,
-czy coś z ekstraktem mimo wszystko nie teges,
- czy może z moim cycem już nic więcej zrobić się nie da ( w co nie wierzę) Wink

W skalp nie wcierałam.


Wnioski:
chyba mimo wszystko odpuszczę sobie zakup kigelii (przynajmniej na razie) , może jakis inny królik doświadczalny się wypowie?
Albowiem ekstraktów wykazujących działanie antyoksydacyjne, bakteriobójcze, ujędrniające - mam na stanie kilka i to sprawdzonych....


ezieta jeśli dobrze pamiętam Ty zakupiłaś ekstrakt z kigelii - jakie wrażenia?
-
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« Odpowiedz #11 : Maj 14, 2008, 13:58:39 »

Tak, kupilam i wlasnie uzywam serum nacycne:)
Poki co, nie moge wypowiedziec sie o wlasciwosciach ujedrniajacych, na pewno skora jest gladsza, co moze byc zasluga generalnie zmiany pielegnacji i masazu.
Na pewno nie zauwazylam zadnego spektakularnego efektu, ale stosuje toto jakies 2 tygodnie, wiec moja ocena nie ejst obiektywna. A ze mam tego cala buteleczke, bede testowac dalej.
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« Odpowiedz #12 : Maj 14, 2008, 15:36:31 »

A jak to stosujecie bo ja chociaz nie mam "cyca" chętnie bym to nałożył na gębę lub pośladki w celu utrzymania tego napięcia skóry co jeszcze zostało z młodości :)Rozumiem że Kigela jest od Marcina vel Tchanatosa.
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« Odpowiedz #13 : Maj 14, 2008, 17:22:44 »

A jak to stosujecie bo ja chociaz nie mam "cyca" chętnie bym to nałożył na gębę lub pośladki w celu utrzymania tego napięcia skóry co jeszcze zostało z młodości :)Rozumiem że Kigela jest od Marcina vel Tchanatosa.

Ja umieszalam sobie mixturke z roznych skladnikow plus kigelia do tego, mogo podzielic sie receptura, choc na pewno mozesz dodac ja do balsamu do ciala.
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« Odpowiedz #14 : Maj 15, 2008, 09:16:10 »

W moim przypadku ekstrakt glikolowy z kigelii był podstawą serum. Domieszałam trochę wody , mleczka owsianego, lecytyny i B3 - to wszystko Smiley
Chciałam kigelię przetestować saute bez innych ekstraktów, których użyłabym już w "docelowym" mleczku do ciała Smiley,
czyli: centellę, EGCG, kofeinę, soję .

Ponieważ efekty ujędrniające nie były "spektakularne" pozostanę przy sprawdzonym mleczku z w/w składnikami plus l-karnityna i piperyna.

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« Odpowiedz #15 : Maj 15, 2008, 10:23:05 »

Właściwie co  co to jest to tajemnicze EGCG bo na stronie nie ma żadnego tłumaczenia.Mieszane sera z fazami zbyt mnie stresowały w przyrządzaniu i nie dawały spektakularnych efektów więc sobie odpuściłem ale do mleczka np. pszenicznego mogę tego czyli Kigeli dodać.
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« Odpowiedz #16 : Maj 15, 2008, 13:38:49 »

zerknij TUTAJ

działanie zewnętrzne głównie antybakteryjne => czyli na syfki
wewnętrznie=> spalacz tłuszczu (m.in.)

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